OVERVIEW: IDENTIFY MIGRAIN AND THE CAUSES
14 Mar 2019
Migraine is a recurring headache disorder, with attacks lasting 4–72 hours with characteristics located unilaterally, pulsating pain, moderate or severe intensity, aggravated by routine physical activity, and associated with nausea and / or photophobia and phonophobia (Headache Classification Subcommittee of the International Headache Society, 2004). Migraine headache is a clinical complaint that is often faced by doctors in daily practice. Often migraines are also followed by:
• Increased sensitivity of the body to light, sound and smell.
• Pain that can last several hours to days.
• Some other symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, pain behind one eye or ear, loss of temporary vision ability, and only occur on one side of the head.
• Symptoms of the aura. Aura is a sensation that you will usually feel before or when you experience a migraine. This aura itself usually occurs for 10 to 30 minutes. Conditions that will occur during the aura are vision problems (such as seeing bright light, lines, or "stars", feeling tingling in the neck, face, or hands. In addition, sufferers may experience difficulty speaking or other basic abilities (such as writing or reading).
Migraines can cause disability for patients, their families, and society. Migraines are primary headaches that are burdensome and often misunderstood, underdiagnosed, and lacking in clinical practice. Research in Spain on subjects ≥ 16 years showed a prevalence of 11.02% .1 Other studies conducted in Taiwan revealed 948 people had migraines from 4738 subjects with observations in 2007–2008.
Nowadays, there is no national data on how large migraine is in Indonesia. Research on migraine is only done with a limited sample and is hospital based. In 2011–2012 a cohort study of risk factors for non-communicable diseases was carried out by the Health Research and Development Institution, Ministry of Health of the Republic of Indonesia with research subjects of around 5,000 people. One of the variables recorded is the presence of migraines. Based on these matters, in this study wanted to find out the prevalence, as well as its relationship with risk factors and migraine complications in the community.
By knowing the various causes of migraines, you will also find it easier to take precautions to avoid migraine attacks. Here are some things that can cause migraines:
1. Genetic factors
Now researchers have been able to determine that swollen blood vessels are one of the many chains of causes of migraine attacks, but this is not the main cause. What they know for sure, migraines are hereditary neurological disorders.
Reporting from How Stuff Works, if one of your parents has a history of migraine attacks, you have a 50 percent chance of having the same condition. If your parents have this history, your chances increase by 70 percent.
2. Certain foods and drinks
Eating foods and drinks that contain certain ingredients such as MSG and caffeine are believed to be the cause of migraines. Both MSG and caffeine can both affect the central nervous system and blood vessels in the brain. As a result, blood vessels in the brain constrict and contract.
Other foods such as cheese and chocolate can also be migraine triggers. Chocolate has several substances that are suspected of causing migraines such as phenylethylamine, flavonoids and thyramine. Unlike the other two substances, thyramine is a migraine trigger substance that is important because it can cause changes in brain hormones and affect blood flow.
Just like chocolate, cheese is a food that has tiramin. As a result, this one food has the potential to trigger migraines in someone who is sensitive to thyramine or tends to experience changes in the bloodstream.
Changes in the hormone estrogen close to or after the menstrual cycle are believed to be the cause of migraine in a woman. This is supported by a study that reported that 62 percent of participants experienced migraines after their menstrual cycle was completed. Some literature even adds that the cause of migraine due to changes in the hormone estrogen may also be experienced by women after menopause.
4. Changes in weather and a pungent aroma
Weather changes and a pungent aroma can cause migraines. A study of several Brazilian teenagers revealed a changing weather between blazing, hot, cloudy, or suddenly cold can trigger migraine attacks. The study participants also reported that a strange or stinging aroma could also cause a migraine to recur. Perfumes, sharp food scents such as durians, and cigarette smoke are among the most common examples of recurrent migraine headaches.
An increase or decrease in a person's emotional condition suddenly can trigger migraines. When stressed, a person's brain will release chemical compounds that cause several changes in the body and brain, such as muscle tension and blood vessel dilation.
Uniquely, stress can occur both in happy and frustrating moments. In some cases even, new migraines are felt after the stress moment has passed or is over, or when you have entered a period of relaxation.