DIET PATTERNS FOR DIABETES MELLITUS PATIENT
08 Feb 2019
Regulating eating plan (diet) is a major component of the successful management of Diabetes Mellitus, but has a very large obstacle, namely the obedience of someone to live it. The principle of regulating eating in diabetics is almost the same as the recommended meal for healthy people in the general public, namely a variety of nutritious and balanced foods, or better known as balanced nutrition, meaning that it is in accordance with the calorie and nutritional needs of each individual.
The most important thing is emphasized is a diet that is disciplined in terms of meal schedules, type and amount of food , it’s called 3 J patterns. Arrangement of food portions in such a way that nutrient intake is spread throughout the day. The important things that must be considered in meal planning are the caloric needs determined by age, gender, weight, physical activity, pregnancy or breastfeeding condition.
Consensus on management and prevention of DM in Indonesia sets out four main pillars in managing DM, namely education, medical nutrition therapy (diet), physical exercise and pharmacological interventions. but what will be done in prevention is medical nutrition therapy (diet). Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT) is very important in preventing DM, managing DM if it has already occurred, and preventing or at least slowing down the rate of development of DM complications (ADA, 2008). Indonesia Endocrine Council (2011) also explained that diet management in patients with type 2 diabetes is part of the total management of type 2 DM.
This diet management emphasizes regularity in terms of energy, food type and meal schedule. Tjokopurwo (cited in Suprihatin, 2012) says that the diet of diabetes mellitus is a food arrangement given to people with DM where the diet must be the right amount of energy consumed in one day, the right schedule according to 3 main meals and 3 meals at intervals 3 hours between the main meal and the interlude food and the right type is to avoid foods that are high in calories.
When making the menu arrangement in meal planning, a nutritionist will certainly try to approach daily eating habits, simple, varied and easy to implement, balanced, and as needed, but basically almost all types of food are the cause of diabetes mellitus. Foods that must be avoided are sweets that include dietary group A restrictions such as sapodilla, orange, pineapple, rambutan, durian, jackfruit and grape. The recommended type is sweet foods including group B fruit namely papaya, kedondong, salak, banana (except plantains, golden bananas, horn bananas), apples, tomatoes, watermelons (Tjokroprawiro, 2006). The dietary goal of patients with diabetes mellitus is to help patients improve their eating and exercise habits to get better metabolic control (Almatsier, 2010).